A total of just 114 times in 110 years. That’s how many times researchers have observed the elusive Stygiomedusa gigantea, a giant deep-sea jellyfish with a bell 1.4 meters wide and broad arms 10 meters long trailing behind like drapes.
To date, almost nothing is known about this rarely-encountered animal aside from detailed accounts of its physical description and sporadic sighting notes.
It appears to have a wide distribution. It’s been collected in Antarctica and encountered during ROV operations in Japan, the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of California. It has been encountered at depths between 750 meters down to 2187 meters in the Gulf of California and between 996m to 1747m in the Gulf of Mexico.
Specimens were collected in Antarctica at depths between 723 and 6669 meters.
The broad, curtain-like arms are perhaps an adaptation that increases the odds of catching prey. It is generally assumed that prey item are difficult to locate in the deep sea and predators have evolved extraordinary means of keeping a hold on prey when it is encountered.
Remarkably, at least one animal might maintain a symbiotic association with this jellyfish. A fish, currently believed to be Thalassobathia pelagica, has been observed swimming near the bell of the jelly, though the exact nature of the relationship remains to be established.
It’s possible that the relationship favors the fish more than the jelly, with the fish opportunistically feeding on scraps from the jelly’s feedings while also benefiting from a degree of protection-by-association.
References and Further Reading
- Drazen, J. C., & Robison, B. H. (2004). Direct observations of the association between a deep-sea fish and a giant scyphomedusa. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 37(3), 209-214.
- BBC: Giant deep sea jellyfish filmed in Gulf of Mexico
- Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: Antarctic Invertebrates: Stygiomedusa gigantea
- World Register of Marine Species: Stygiomedusa gigantea
- EOL: Stygiomedusa gigantea